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自然界正在提醒我们,生物多样性损失与野生动物贸易是大流行病的源头

时间:2020-07-19 16:48

编者按:6月28日,非洲公园网络特使、大象保护计划特别顾问、联合国《濒危野生动植物种国际贸易公约》(CITES) 上一届秘书长约翰·斯坎伦 (John Scanlon) 先生在德国联邦环境部和自然保育及核能安全部会议上进行了特邀致辞。他与中国绿发会反盗猎工作组的小伙伴们分享了这则致辞。一如既往地,每次读他的论述,都让我们颇受启发。我们认为倾听国际前沿声音有利于推动中国深度参与#全球环境治理# ,有鉴于此,现将全文翻译分享于中国绿发会平台,供我国有关方面和专家们参考。

Nature is sending us a message: Biodiversity loss and wildlife trade as causes of pandemics - German Ministry for the Environment (BMU)

Thank you Chair, and thank you to Minister Svenja Schulze, Ambassador Heusgen,and our good colleagues at the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety for convening this international event Biodiversity loss and wildlife trade as causes of pandemics.

感谢大会主席,感谢环境部长舒尔策(Svenja Schulze),大使霍伊斯根(Heusgen),以及各位在德国联邦环境部(Federal Ministry for the Environment)和自然保育及核能安全部(Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety)的同事。感谢你们组织召开此次题为“生物多样性损失与野生动物贸易是大流行病的源头”的国际会议。

Germany has been a long-standing and strong supporter of global efforts to conserve nature and combat illegal wildlife trade and it is most encouraging to hear the opening remarks of both Minister Schulze, Ambassador Heusgen.

德国一直是国际社会上长期支持保护自然和打击野生动物贸易的强大力量。部长舒尔策和大使霍伊斯根的发言十分鼓舞人心。

This COVID-19 pandemic has reminded us in a devastating way of the interconnected nature of things, most particularly between economies, the environment, human and wildlife health and welfare. It has raised our awareness of the links between how we treat wildlife and human health.

新冠肺炎疫情以残酷的方式提醒着我们,世间万物是紧密联系的,特别突显各经济体、环境、人类和野生动物健康及福利之间是密不可分的。它帮助我们意识到人类对野生动物的态度与人类健康之间的联系。

The likely source of COVID-19, and the known sources of previous epidemics and pandemics[i], show us what conditions make the spillover of deadly viruses from animals to humans more likely.

新冠病毒肺炎的可能来源和过往流行病[1]的已知来源都在告诉我们,在什么情况下致命的病毒更容易从动物传播到人身上。

The risks are real, and the stakes are high, and this pandemic has revealed some serious weaknesses in the system, which must be addressed if we are to avoid future pandemics.

风险确切存在,代价十分高昂。此次疫情暴露了社会系统中的严重缺陷,若想避免未来再次发生类似疫情,我们就必须着手解决这些问题。

The current international regime for regulating wildlife trade and combating wildlife crime is inadequate both for regulating the wildlife trade, markets and consumption that pose a risk to public health, as well as for ending wildlife crime.

目前的野生动物贸易国际监管机制和打击野生生物犯罪国际体系还不足以管控会威胁人类健康的野生动物交易市场、贸易以及消费行为,也不能够终止野生动物犯罪。

Left as it is our system is not going to prevent the next pandemic. It could, in fact, be raising our potential exposure to zoonotic diseases that can spill over from wild animals to people. We can and must change it.

我们的体系还不足以预防下一场大流行病,甚至可能会提高我们接触野生动物身上人畜共染病的几率。我们能够、也必须做出改变。

We also need to show much greater ambition in how we protect, manage and finance biodiverse rich areas, to protect wildlife at source, where it poses no risk to human health, and before it ever enters illegal trade.

在保护、管理生物多样性丰富的地区和为其融资时,我们应该有更宏远的目标,从源头上保护野生动物,在野生动物对人类健康产生威胁之前,在他们进入非法交易链之前保护他们。

These are challenging, global, interconnected, issues requiring a collective response.

CITES sets the legal framework for international wildlife trade. Its decisions are based upon agreed trade and biological criteria[ii]. The risks to public health, or animal health, are not taken into account in its decision making[iii].

《濒危野生动植物种国际贸易公约》(CITES,以下简称为《公约》)为国际野生动植物贸易设立了法律框架[2]。《公约》通过的决议是基于事先协商好的贸易及生物标准。野生动物贸易对公共健康或动物健康的威胁并不在《公约》的考虑范围内[3]。

In a post COVID-19 world, such a siloed approach cannot be sustained. We need to take a ‘One Health’ approach to wildlife trade[iv]. There are various ways to achieve this objective, while avoiding unintended consequences, preferably by amending CITES, which I do not have time to address today.

在“后新冠时代”的世界,如此单一的方法将不再可行。我们需要采取“同一健康”方针来管理野生动物贸易[4]。有许多种方法可以帮助我们达成此目标,同时避免意想不到的结果。最佳的办法就是修订《公约》,因时间所限我今天在此不予赘述。

However, one way or another, there will be new bans on high-risk wildlife markets and the trade in and consumption of certain wildlife on public health grounds and this will require a more effective global enforcement response. If not, such markets and trade may simply move underground, which will exacerbate rather than diminish the health risks.

无论事情怎样发展,在高风险野生动物交易市场、可能影响公共健康的野生动物交易和消费行为等方面都会有新禁令,我们亟需一套更高效的全球应对机制。如果没有这类机制,相关市场和交易就可能转入地下,往往会加重而不是减轻公共安全危机。

We have known for some time now that serious wildlife crime is organised, transnational, is fuelled by corruption, and has a devastating impact on wildlife, local communities, national economies, security, public health and entire ecosystems, but this is now increasingly obvious.

我们已经了解,严重的野生生物犯罪往往是有组织的、跨国界的、受不正当利益驱动的,对野生动植物、当地社区、社会经济、国家安全、公共健康以及整个生态系统都有毁灭性的影响,且正变得越来越明显。

The figures are staggering. A recent report from the World Bank puts value of such crime in the vicinity of USD200 billion a year, when one includes all wildlife, including fish and timber. It says that governments are losing between USD7-12 billion a year in tax revenue, and the impact on ecosystems is valued in the order of USD1-2 trillion, as the theft of wildlife diminishes ecosystems, including their ability to mitigate climate change.[v] The costs of wildlife-related pandemics are incalculable.

相关数据十分触目惊心。世界银行近期的一份报告显示,野生动物犯罪行业每年的价值约有2千亿美元,包括所有野生动植物种类(比如鱼类和木材)。据报告,每年政府将在税收方面损失近70到120亿美元,野生动物犯罪对生态系统的影响将造成约1到2万亿美元的损失,因为盗猎野生动植物将对生态系统造成严重损失,比如丧失缓解气候变化的能力[5]。与野生动物相关的大流行病所造成的损失则无法预估。

Yet, remarkably, despite these facts, there is no global legal agreement on wildlife crime.

In the absence of any alternative, we have used CITES to crank up the fight against illegal wildlife trade, and with some success. However, CITES was never designed to deal with wildlife crime and its limitations as a trade-related, rather than a crime-related convention, in combating serious wildlife crimes are now in plain sight.[vi]

目前还没有可以代替《公约》的体系,我们利用《公约》框架加大对非法野生动物贸易的打击,已取得一定成果。但是,《公约》并不是为应对野生动植物犯罪而生,《公约》是一个围绕贸易,而不是犯罪的体系,在打击严重的野生动物贸易方面它的局限性显而易见[6]。

And with the benefit of the UN IPBES Global Assessment, we must look beyond CITES listed species, which accounts for only 36,000, or 0.5%, of the world’s eight million species, and use the law to help countries stop the theft of all their wildlife, plants and animals, terrestrial and marine, not just those species that are on the brink of extinction.

有了生物多样性和生态系统服务政府间科学-政策平台(IPBES)全球评估体系的帮助,我们不应只局限于《公约》附录名单里的物种。全球有大约800万种生物,然而CITES附录名单只涵盖了3.6万种,大约占0.5%。我们必须利用法律工具帮助各国终止所有盗取野生物种的行为,包括植物和野生动物(陆生和海洋),不应只关注濒临灭绝的物种。

We must finally grasp the nettle with wildlife crime and put combating serious wildlife crimes where it belongs. We must embed it into the international criminal law framework, which can be done via a new Protocol to the UN Convention against Transnational Organised Crime, as has been done for other serious crimes, such as human trafficking.

我们必须大刀阔斧地解决野生动物犯罪问题,给予其足够重视。我们必须将此纳入国际刑法框架内,效仿管控其他严重犯罪行为(比如人口贩卖)的措施,在联合国打击跨国有组织犯罪公约下签订新的议定书。

Wherever possible, it is best to take measures to stop the illegal taking, trade and consumption of wildlife before it ever happens, by better protecting wildlife and its habitat.

只要有可能,我们应通过加大力度保护野生动物及其栖息地,在非法盗猎、交易和消费野生动物的行为发生前采取措施阻止它。

When they have a stake in it, local communities are the best protectors of wildlife, before it ever enters illegal trade, thereby helping avert the next wildlife-related pandemic.[vii]

当这些行为与当地居民的利益息息相关时,作为野生动物的最佳保护者,他们可以帮助阻止野生动物进入非法交易链。由此帮助预防下一场与野生动物有关的大流行病[7]。

We need to focus our collective efforts around large-scale, long-term commitments to biodiverse-rich places that are included in protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and that can deliver multiple benefits.

我们应在涵盖范围广、长期有效的承诺下通力合作,重点关注受保护以及“其他有效的区域保护措施”(OECMs)管辖内的野生生物资源丰富的地区,以及关注可以带来切实成果的地区。

We need to both scale up our ambition for the area of land and sea included in such areas, as well as our investment in them, which has for too long been treated as a secondary issue. The next Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, CoP15, presents an ideal opportunity to do so.

我们在保护和投资这类陆域和海域时需要放远目光,然而这类地区常常被放在次要议题的分类里。下一届《生物多样性公约》缔约方大会(CBD CoP15)提供了一个解决问题的绝佳机会。

When well-managed, these areas provide security for people and wildlife and bring about stability, creating the conditions needed to attract tourism, secure carbon, combat poaching, protect biodiversity, and create decent local jobs in remote areas. They deliver on multiple global commitments all through one investment window, which I’ve seen for myself across many countries, including in the Garamba National Park in the DRC.

只要管理恰当,这些地区能保证人们和野生动物的安全,带来稳定和法律秩序,并创造条件吸引游客、降低碳排放量、打击盗猎行为、保护生物多样性,以及在偏远地区创造体面的工作机会。只要通过一类投资窗口,就能实现多项全球承诺。我已经在许多国家见证过这些成果,比如在刚果民主共和国的戈朗巴国家公园(Garamba National Park)。

The proposed German Legacy Landscape Fund and the UK’s Biodiverse Landscape Fund both adopt this approach, which is most welcome, but the funding is limited.

在德国设立的风景遗产基金会和英国的生物多样性景观基金会都已采取此类措施,值得我们鼓励,但他们的运营资金十分有限。

Today we better understand the multiple benefits of nature conservation, yet these benefits are not sufficiently recognised by health, development or security initiatives or their financing. As the benefits of effective nature conservation extends well beyond wildlife, so too must the sources of financing.

今天我们更加深刻地理解到了自然保护的益处,但健康、发展或安全方面的倡议或资助并没有足够体现这种认识。既然有效的自然保护措施所带来的益处不仅限于野生生物,融资来源也不应局限于此。

If we manage to take these separate but interrelated actions[viii], I believe we will be well placed to avert the next wildlife-related pandemic, but if we do not act boldly now to institutionalise the changes that are needed to laws, funding and programmes, I fear we may find ourselves back in the same place in the not too distant future.

如果我们有办法采取这些行动[8],我相信我们将足以避免下一场与野生动物相关的大流行病。但是我们如果不采取大胆行动,将相关法律的修订、相关基金和项目制度化,我担心未来我们可能再次陷入与如今相同的境地。

[ii] CITES trade controls only address overexploitation, namely whether a trade transaction will threaten the survival of that species. CITES narrow focus on overexploitation was sound when the Convention was negotiated in the early 1970’s, but it cannot be sustained in a post COVID-19 world.

[2]《公约》的贸易监管工具只关注资源过度开发的问题,也就是说,某次交易是否会威胁该物种的生存。该单一关注点在20世纪70年代初期,也就是在制定《公约》的时期里显得十分合理,但这一关注点在“后新冠时代”将不再可行。

[iii] Including in listing species or in approving any trade transactions. For example, pangolins are listed under CITES, horseshoe bats, along with many other bat species, are not.

[3]比如在制定附录名单或批准交易时。例如,《公约》附录里列出了穿山甲,但菊头蝠和其它种类的蝙蝠却不在该公约附录名单内。

[iv] Which seeks to bring public, animal and plant health and the environment closer together

[v] Recent scientific reports show that intact ecosystems are better at sequestering carbon than degraded ones.

[5]近期有科学研究表明,完好无损的生态系统在吸收碳排放的能力比受损的生态系统更强。

[vi] This is perhaps best illustrated by the fact that record levels of illegal trade in pangolins have been recorded over the past two years, despite them being given the highest level of protection under the Convention in 2016.

[6]最明显体现的是过去两年内,穿山甲非法贸易破纪录式增长,而穿山甲恰巧是《公约》自2016年来保护力度最大的动物。

[vii] Wildlife-based tourism revenue is a critical part of the financing of nature conservation especially in developing countries. This current loss of revenue, and related jobs, is seriously challenging wildlife protection efforts, and could lead to an increase in poaching, degradation of ecosystems, and instability, thereby increasing the threat posed by high-risk wildlife trade, and exacerbating the effects of climate change. We must find a way to bridge this financing gap, which is addressed in your next session.

[7]以野生生物资源为主的旅游业收入是自然保护筹资的关键部分,特别是在发展中国家。目前这方面的收入减少和相关工作人员下岗,正严重挑战野生动植物保护工作,可能导致更多盗猎行为、生态系统退化加剧和不稳定性上升,从而增加高风险野生动物贸易带来的威胁,加剧气候变化现象。我们必须找到弥合这一资金缺口的方法,下届会议将解决这一问题。

[viii] It’s important to also note that to be as effective as possible, all these efforts will need to be complemented by well-targeted demand reduction campaigns, and, where necessary, initiatives to provide alternative sources of protein and livelihoods to people severely affected by any bans. Traditional, subsistence practices use should not be impacted.

[8] 值得注意的是,若想让这些措施卓有成效,所有措施都应通过定位精准的需求降低行动来实施,若条件允许,也可通过一些倡议,为受禁令严重影响的群体提供其他蛋白质和生计来源。传统的维持生计方法不应受影响。

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/nature-sending-us-message-biodiversity-loss-wildlife-trade-john-e-